Historical notes of the war in Algeria will, together with the political chits (written within paranthesis), be included in the rules of Ici, c'est la France! (which is due to be released in December: http://www.khybergames.com/id41.html).
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By summer 1954 the war in Indochina had finally ended. France had lost and one effect was that colonial subjects lost their respect for French rule. The Algerian soldiers were bitter of the treatment they received when they returned home. Algeria was considered part of France but only European settlers benefited from all civil rights (Ici, c’est la France). A demonstration in 1945, in Sétif, got out of hand with an ensuing massacre on local pied noirs. Violent retaliation fell upon local Moslems and an estimated 6,000 people were killed. This event, in addition to the fact that reforms were blocked by the pied-noirs and that the 1948 elections were rigged, increased the mistrust between the two communities (French repression). The nationalist movement in Algeria was represented mainly by Ferhat Abbas who wanted to bring on reforms, but who felt it increasingly difficult to withstand those who demanded total independence (Abbas joins FLN).
On the 1st of November 1954 attacks were made all over the country by a new group called National Liberation Front - FLN. There was also a boycott on French goods (Economic boycott) as well as recognition from many Moslem countries (Bandung conference). FLN divided Algeria into six regions called Wilayas, each with an independent military leader. To get a grip of the Algerian population FLN had to create a chasm between Moslems and the pied-noirs (Ambush). They had to make every Moslem a terrorist in the eyes of the enemy by conducting blind terror among the French. The leaders in the easternmost Wilaya decided to throw a torch into the conflict by conducting a massacre on Pied-noirs in the area of Philipville (Massacre). Paras were sent to the area and, in rage, answered with a "ratonnade", rat hunt, where they, together with armed civilians, shot any Moslem on sight. The nation had been pushed to a point where there was no turning back (Reinforce). There was a rivalry within FLN (FLN dissent). But at a meeting in Algeria the military structure were established and decisions were taken how to conduct peace negotiations with France: No cease fire before recognition of independence, no division of Algerian territory and no double citizenships for the pied-noirs. FLN were to stick to these principles up to end. France worked hard to gain support among Moslems by sending out people into villages (SAS), charged with the mission of building schools and other kinds of social work (Reforms).
FLN received increased support from Egypt after the Suez crisis in 1956 (Suez crisis), a war which humiliated the French military and gave FLN a stronger political recognition from Moslem countries (Middle East unity) and parts of the US political elite (Kennedy). Algiers was the main battle site during 1956-57 (Bomb attacks). Under the leadership of Saadi Yacef, FLN started to attack the police and civilians through shootings and bombings. General Massu was given full powers to deal with the situation. Coinciding with the UN opening in New York a general strike all over Algeria was called for by the FLN to demonstrate their authority. The order from Massu was to break the strike at all costs (Breaking the strike). The strike was stopped and the French intelligence managed to fool the FLN leadership around Algiers completely (Léger/Safy coup). France also captured the FLN leader Ben Bella (Capture Ben Bella). A certain war-weariness was now spreading among Moslems as they quarrelled among themselves (Melouza massacre) and as France was gaining the initiative through informers (Les bleues) and resettlement of Algerians into protected villages, thereby denying FLN supply (Resettle).
Oil was found in the Sahara (Oil in the Sahara) which made it worthwhile to fight for the country (France will stay) but at the same time the public in France was shocked over the news of the use of torture (Population suffers). The war was becoming expensive and France faced an economic and a political crisis (Economic crisis). After the independence of Tunisia and Morocco (Tunisia & Morocco), France constructed the "Morice line" along the borders to seal off any traffic across them (Morice line). FLN were in dire strait and tried to bring the war into France itself by bomb attacks and by taxing the Algerians living there (Algerian taxation). The war seemed to have no solution in sight, so, in May 1958, 50,000 people gathered in Algiers (half of them Moslems) calling, together with the army, for a "national arbiter of a high authority to re-establish the situation". There was only one man who could do that: Charles de Gaulle. In June, he became president and the 5th republic was born.
FLN was facing increasing problems with its supply (Hunt arms dealers) and internal purges (Internal FLN purges), often made after false information had been planted by French intelligence (2e bureau). Amirouche, the local leader south of Algiers, is said to have had 3,000 men and women killed before he himself was killed (Amirouche madness). In 1959 Maurice Challe, a new commander-in-chief, arrived in Algeria. The army was spread out throughout the country in the "quadrillage" system, "squaring", which made it difficult for FLN to move around. But Challe also wanted to hunt the enemy down so he brought forward four main changes (Challe plan). First, he created special commandos, called "commando de chasse", with Moslem trackers (Commando de chasse). They would track the enemy and then call in the mobile reserve to kill it (Helicopter). Second, he increased the number of Moslems in the army to make loyal Moslems take a more active part in the struggle (Harkis mobilized). Third, he intensified the resettlements of civilian Moslems (Suffer of resettled). Fourth, he concentrated his forces to one area at a time to be able to effectively purge it from FLN presence, which included attacks on foreign soil (Bombing of Sakiet). This strategy was a major success and the French authorities were hoping that this, combined with economic development (Economic development), would make the Moslems accept French rule. But FLN refused to surrender.
De Gaulle was modernising the armed forces (Atomic tests) and wished to get rid of the "Algerian problem". He suspected that no settlement would survive without the support of the Moslem population, so he was starting to speak in terms of "self-determination" (Selfdetermination). The pied-noirs and the army were not amused (Army discontent). The political temperature was rising and when General Massu was sacked in January 1960, after having criticized de Gaulle (Recall of Massu), the right-wing of the pied-noirs in Algiers turned to the streets wanting to force the downfall of the government. They created barricades and opened fire on the approaching gendarmes (Ortiz’s militia). The two para regiments in the city were sympathetic to the pied-noirs but did not join them. On the 29th of January de Gaulle made a brilliant speech on television which made the insurrection in Algiers implode.
But FLN in Algeria had problems too, with its lack of arms (Capture of arms). The leaders of the Wilaya around Algiers tried to offer a separate peace (Operation Tilsit). But in late 1960, Boumedienne, now in power, consolidated FLN (Rise of Boumedienne) and started to receive new supply (FLN in China). FLN was indirectly recognised as representatives of the Algerians when de Gaulle, for the first time, turned to them and suggested a cease fire (French truce). The rest of the French colonial empire in Africa became independent (Independence for West Africa) and in a speech de Gaulle uttered the words "an Algerian republic". He also visited Algeria once more in December 1960 and miraculously survived four attempts to kill him. During his visit Algiers exploded in violence as the right-wing elements took to the streets to fight the police. Then on the 11th of December, a totally unexpected pro-FLN demonstration poured out from the Arab quarters and Algiers turned into a battle scene (FLN riots). No-one could be fooled any longer regarding Arab allegiance.
Discontent was ripe in many in many quarters. Challe resigned (Challe resigns) and among some of the elite regiments, rage was brewing. In April 1961, the generals Jouhaud, Zeller, Salan and Challe took over power in Algiers with the help of some of the para regiments. The plan was to mobilize both pied-noirs and Moslems and to relaunch those successful offensives previously made during Challe’s command. But Algeria had only supply for two weeks and most of the army there, although sympathetic, would not join the rebellion. De Gaulle now made a new speech, perhaps the most important since his radio speech in 1940, where he forcefully ordered all soldiers to stop these rebels. Private soldiers, tired of the war, then refused to cooperate with their superiors and the rebellion died. Para regiments such as 1st REP, 14th RCP and 18th RCP were disbanded and the army was demoralized.
Negotiations with FLN commenced in April 1961 in a small town called Evian (Negotiate). In the meantime a clandestine terrorist organization called Organisation Armée Secrète (OAS) was recruiting among disillusioned soldiers and pied-noirs. They started killing everyone they regarded as traitors and conducted bombings in France itself. When some conscripts were gunned down in Algiers the army sent in tanks against OAS and a three day civil war raged in the city. By March 1962 an agreement of cease fire and Algerian independence was reached, which had the effect that all French just stood up and left Algeria. The French authorities were shocked, they were expecting around 100,000 people, but around 1,400,000 flooded into France instead. The Moslems who had cooperated with the French now received the full wrath of the FLN. Perhaps more than 100,000 of them were killed.
A long nightmare of twenty-two years of war, which started in 1940 with the humiliation of defeat and German occupation, had brought the nation to the very brink of civil war. But in July 1962 it was finally over.